The 16 personality types in romantic relationships

Explore the dynamics of 16 personality types in romantic relationships. Learn how to nurture lasting love and mutual understanding.

On this page

Love knows no bounds, but navigating its complexities can be thrilling and challenging. Whether an extroverted adventurer or an introverted thinker, understanding how your personality type impacts romantic relationships can unlock the secrets to lasting love. 1 2

Are you an ENFP looking for a healthy, balanced relationship? Or an ISTJ who wants to form deeper connections? In this article, we’ll delve into the fascinating world of the 16 personality types and their influence on love, communication, and emotional bonds.

Get ready to uncover compatibility secrets, discover your ideal match, and foster deeper connections with your partner. Join us on this journey of self-discovery and romance!

Discover how communication and attachment styles impact your relationship dynamics. Explore effective strategies for fostering emotional connection and understanding.

What are the 16 personality types?

What are the 16 personality types?

The 16 personality types were first developed in the 1920s by psychologist Carl Jung and later expanded by Isabel Myers and Katherine Briggs. They provided a framework to understand and categorize human behavior and preferences. 3

The 16 personality types are a system of categorizing individuals based on their preferences and tendencies in perceiving the world and making decisions. And while it was first developed for healthcare practitioners, it can also provide valuable insight into our romantic relationships. 4

The 16 types are divided into four core categories, known as the “Four Temperaments”:

Depending on your type, you may have certain strengths and weaknesses in romantic relationships. You might be more naturally inclined to express your emotions or read your partner’s feelings better.

Or perhaps you’re more task-oriented and tend to make decisions quickly. Understanding the core personality types can help you recognize your tendencies and those of your partner and understand how they interact with each other.


Analyst personality types

Analyst personality types

Analyst personalities tend to have a logical approach to problem-solving and a deep appreciation for abstract ideas. They often think critically and analytically and are skilled at interpreting complex data.

Here’s how the Analyst (INTP, INTJ, ENTJ, and ENTP) personalities might approach romantic relationships:

Architects (INTJ) in Romantic Relationships

If you identify as an Architect (INTJ) in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), you possess unique personality traits that can significantly influence your romantic relationships. As an INTJ, you are known for your strategic thinking, analytical approach, and preference for rational decision-making.

In relationships, you value intellectual compatibility and seek partners who can engage in deep and meaningful conversations. However, your natural inclination towards independence and a desire for personal growth may impact how you navigate emotional intimacy.

Balancing independence and emotional connection

As an Architect, it is crucial to strike a balance between your need for independence and fostering emotional connections in your romantic relationships. While you highly value your personal space and time for introspection, recognizing the significance of emotional bonds with your partners is equally important.

Navigating an introvert-extrovert relationship? Find expert tips to strike the perfect balance and create a loving partnership that celebrates both personalities.

Your rational nature might lead you to approach conflicts with logical solutions. However, expressing empathy and understanding your partner’s emotions is equally vital for nurturing a strong emotional bond. 5

In addition, your preference for rational thinking and logical decision-making may make you reluctant to compromise in relationships. However, learning the art of compromise can benefit your love life and help you build deeper connections with your partners. 6

Logicians (INTP) in romantic relationships

INTPs are known for their logical and creative minds. They tend to approach problems from a unique perspective and seek holistic solutions. In romantic relationships, INTPs are often drawn to partners who share their appreciation for intellectual exploration.

Their quest for knowledge and emotional independence can sometimes make them unreliable when it comes to expressing their feelings and addressing issues in a timely manner. They need to be encouraged to make time for emotional conversations with their partners and actively express their affection.

As a Logician, it is challenging to communicate your feelings in a relationship effectively. This can be especially true when expressing appreciation for your partner’s efforts or discussing difficult topics.

However, actively showing affection and engaging in meaningful conversations with your partner are important steps toward fostering emotional intimacy and connection. This doesn’t mean you should force yourself to be sentimental, but rather work towards finding the right balance between your need for intellectual exploration and emotional expression. 7

It’s also important to remember that compromise is key to a healthy relationship. While it’s natural to want to explore different solutions and perspectives, learning how and when to make compromises with your partner can strengthen your bond. 8

Opposites do attract! Learn how couples with contrasting personalities create a dynamic and fulfilling partnership that celebrates their unique differences.

Commanders (ENTJ) in romantic relationships

Commanders (ENTJs) are natural-born leaders driven by their desire to pursue success and mastery. They are often determined and logical in their approach to problem-solving, as well as highly independent and goal-oriented.

In romantic relationships, ENTJs tend to be drawn toward partners with similar intellectual curiosity and zeal for life. However, their self-confidence and drive for success may lead to an overbearing presence in relationships.

Communicating with transparency

As an ENTJ, it’s crucial to remember that being a leader doesn’t mean having all the answers or making all the decisions. This is especially true in relationships, where communication and trust are integral to building strong emotional connections.

To effectively cultivate intimacy with your partner, learn how to express yourself openly and honestly. Be mindful of the power dynamics in your relationship, and try to create a balance that allows both of you to express yourselves freely.

Making compromises and learning to compromise is also essential for fostering a healthy relationship. Being open-minded to different perspectives, trying new things together, and learning how to adjust your expectations can be beneficial in helping you build strong emotional bonds with your partner.

Debaters (ENTPs) in romantic relationships

Debaters (ENTPs) are known for their natural curiosity and enthusiasm for life. They often bring a creative and intellectual energy to relationships but may struggle with being emotionally vulnerable or committing to long-term connections.

In romantic relationships, ENTPs may be drawn toward partners who share their appreciation for intellectual exploration and understanding of unique perspectives. However, their love of debate can sometimes make them overly argumentative with their partners.

Cultivating commitment and security

As an ENTP, you should be mindful of not getting too carried away with intellectual debates in your romantic relationships. Both partners need to communicate openly, but engaging in heated conversations without a clear goal or resolution can damage the trust between you and your partner.

In addition, learning how to express appreciation for your partner’s efforts and emotional support is also important for fostering a strong connection. Reassuring your partner of your commitment to the relationship, making time for shared activities, and actively expressing love and affection can help build security in your relationship. 9

Overall, analyst personality types are highly independent, analytical thinkers. Being aware of the unique traits that they bring to relationships and learning how to balance their needs for autonomy with emotional intimacy can help them build strong connections with their partners.


Diplomat personality types

Diplomat personality types

Diplomat personality types (ENFJ, INFJ, INFP, and ENFP) are often described as warm and empathetic individuals. They tend to be passionate in their pursuits and strive to make meaningful connections with others.

In romantic relationships, they are known for expressing love deeply and showing genuine care for their partners. Here’s how each type can bring their unique strengths to relationships:

Advocates (INFJ) in romantic relationships

Advocates (INFJs) are often drawn to partners who share their values and appreciation for meaningful conversations. They tend to be highly passionate in relationships and strive to build connections through mutual understanding and trust.

These people are naturally attuned to their emotions and strive to express them appropriately. However, they may sometimes have difficulty expressing themselves clearly and articulating their feelings.

Dating an INFJ? Dive into the world of this rare personality type and explore the secrets to dating an INFJ personality type.

Setting boundaries and self-care

For an Advocate, setting boundaries and practicing self-care is essential for maintaining a healthy and balanced romantic relationship. Your tendency to put others’ needs before your own can sometimes lead to emotional exhaustion and burnout.

Learn to recognize your limits and communicate your boundaries with your partner. Practicing self-care and taking time allows you to recharge and be more present in the relationship. 10

Set boundaries that protect you and your partner, and strive to create a relationship that allows you to be heard and respected. This is an important step towards fostering trust and deepening connection. 11

Mediators (INFP) in romantic relationships

Mediators (INFPs) are often drawn to partners who share their appreciation for meaningful conversations and creative pursuits. They tend to be deeply passionate in their relationships and strive to build a strong connections through mutual understanding and trust.

In romantic relationships, Mediators may have difficulty expressing their feelings and articulating their expectations and boundaries. They may also be reluctant to make compromises when it comes to their values and beliefs.

Addressing conflicts with sensitivity

While you cherish harmony in your relationships, conflicts are a natural part of any partnership. As a Mediator, your sensitivity to emotional nuances allows you to approach conflicts with empathy and understanding. 12

Seek open, honest communication, actively listening to your partner’s perspective without judgment. Find constructive ways to address disagreements, allowing you to express your needs and concerns.

Protagonists (ENFJ) in romantic relationships

If you identify as a Protagonist (ENFJ) in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), your romantic relationships are characterized by warmth, charisma, and a genuine desire to uplift and support your partner.

As an ENFJ, you possess strong interpersonal skills and a natural ability to understand and connect with others. In relationships, you seek partners who share your values and appreciate your nurturing and caring nature.

Balancing selflessness and self-Care

As a Protagonist, finding a balance between selflessness and self-care is vital for maintaining a healthy romantic relationship. Your natural inclination to prioritize others’ needs may sometimes lead to neglecting your well-being.

Remember that caring for yourself allows you to be a more supportive and emotionally available partner. Set aside time for self-reflection, engage in activities that bring you joy, and communicate your needs with your partner.

Campaigners (ENFP) in romantic relationships

Campaigners (ENFPs) in romance are often characterized by their enthusiasm and spontaneity. They tend to be passionate in relationships and strive to build strong emotional connections with their partners.

As an ENFP, you may have difficulty expressing your feelings clearly and articulating your expectations in a relationship. You may also need help with commitment, as your need for freedom and autonomy may conflict with the desire for a close connection.

Dating an ENFP? Explore expert tips for dating an ENFP personality type.

Maintaining your identity

It is important to remember that maintaining your identity is essential for sustaining a healthy, balanced relationship. While it’s natural to want to merge with your partner and form a bond, creating space where you can be yourselves is also vital.

Remember to take time and stay connected with your interests and hobbies. Setting boundaries and caring for your needs allows you to be a more present and supportive partner.

Above all, remember that diplomats are highly intuitive individuals driven to establish meaningful connections with others. With awareness and understanding, they can bring their unique strengths to any relationship and create rewarding partnerships.


Sentinel personality types

Sentinel personality types

Sentinel personality types (ESTJs, ISTJs, ESFJs, and ISFJs) are typically described as detail-oriented individuals who value facts and logic. In romantic relationships, they tend to be reliable and responsible partners who strive for stability and security.

Here’s how each type can bring their unique strengths to relationships:

Caregivers (ESFJ) in romantic relationships

If you identify as a Caregiver (ESFJ) in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), your romantic relationships are characterized by warmth, compassion, and a deep sense of dedication to your partner’s well-being.

As an ESFJ, you possess strong interpersonal skills and a natural ability to anticipate and meet your partner’s needs. In relationships, you seek partners who appreciate your nurturing and supportive nature and reciprocate your care and affection.

Expressing your needs

As a Caregiver, expressing your needs and desires may require conscious effort. Your natural inclination to prioritize others can sometimes lead to neglecting your well-being. Remember that caring for yourself is essential for maintaining a healthy and balanced relationship.

Set aside time for self-care and actively communicate your needs with your partner. Taking the effort to express your feelings allows you to be more emotionally available in the relationship, creating a stronger bond between you and your partner.

Logisticians (ISTJ) in romantic relationships

Logisticians (ISTJs) are often drawn to partners who share their values of responsibility and reliability. They tend to be committed and loyal in romantic relationships, striving to build a secure connection through trust and mutual understanding.

In relationships, Logisticians may struggle to express their feelings clearly and articulate their expectations. They may also struggle with commitment, as their need for personal freedom and autonomy can conflict with the desire for a close connection.

Redefining commitment

As an ISTJ, redefining your understanding of commitment may be necessary for maintaining a healthy relationship. Instead of viewing it as shackles to your freedom, consider it an opportunity to deepen your bond with your partner.

Remember to take the time to discuss your expectations and boundaries with your partner. Establishing a safe space for open communication allows you to create a secure connection where you can flourish together. 13

Executives (ESTJ) in romantic relationships

Executives (ESTJs) tend to prioritize stability and security in romantic relationships. They value honesty, loyalty, and respect, expecting their partners to reciprocate their commitment and dedication.

Regarding communication, Executives may have difficulty expressing their feelings and articulating their expectations. They also tend to be straightforward in conflict resolution, which can strain relationships.

As an Executive, navigating emotions may require intentional effort. While you may prefer to approach situations logically and practically, emotions play a significant role in romantic relationships.

Encourage open communication with your partner about feelings and emotions. Practice active listening and show empathy and understanding. This is essential for building a secure connection and allows you to create a deeper understanding with your partner. 14

Defenders (ISFJ) in romantic relationships

Defenders (ISFJs) are often described as loyal and dependable in romantic relationships. They prioritize security and stability, striving to create meaningful emotional connections with their partners.

Because you have a nurturing and caring nature, you may prioritize your partner’s needs over your own. Remember that caring for yourself is essential for establishing a secure connection with your partner.

Nurturing and supportive

Being nurturing and supportive is at the heart of any meaningful romantic relationship for a Defender. Your caring and compassionate nature makes you an excellent listener and a reliable partner.

You prioritize your loved one’s needs and strive to create a comfortable and harmonious environment for them. Embrace your nurturing tendencies and demonstrate your love and affection through actions.

Generally, sentinels seek to create a strong sense of security and stability in their relationships. They are patient, loyal, dependable partners who prioritize trust and honesty with their loved ones.


Explorer personality types

Explorer personality types

Explorer personality types (ISTPs, ISFPs, ESTPs, and ESFPs) are often driven by curiosity and eager to explore life’s possibilities. In romantic relationships, they strive for meaningful connections with openness and authenticity.

These personality types can bring unique strengths to their relationships:

Virtuosos (ISTP) in romantic relationships

Virtuosos (ISTPs) tend to be independent and adventurous in relationships. They are driven by curiosity, exploring possibilities, and seeking a deeper understanding of their emotions and motivations.

They prefer partners who value autonomy and personal freedom, supporting their need for adventure and independence. They can also be reserved and detached when expressing their feelings, adding an element of mystery to the relationship.

Discover the secrets to forging a lasting bond with your ISTP partner. Explore practical tips to strengthen your connection and enhance your relationship.

Acknowledging emotions

As a Virtuoso, acknowledging and expressing your emotions may require intentional effort. Take time out to consider how you feel and communicate your needs with your partner.

Remember that it is essential to create a secure connection. Showing your partner that you are willing to invest in the relationship creates a deeper understanding between you. 15

Adventurers (ISFP) in romantic relationships

Adventurers (ISFPs) tend to be loyal, committed partners who value emotional intimacy. They strive for meaningful connections, looking for partners who share their values of authenticity and openness.

While Adventurers are warm and nurturing, they may struggle with expressing emotions or articulating expectations clearly. They need partners who can provide emotional support and understanding to feel safe and secure.

Practicing vulnerability

Vulnerability is key to developing meaningful relationships as an ISFP. Trusting your partner with your true feelings and needs is essential for creating a secure connection.

Discuss issues that matter to you, such as emotions, values, and expectations. This helps build a strong foundation for mutual understanding and an even stronger bond between you both. 16

Remember to reassure your partner that they can trust you with their feelings and needs. Showing appreciation for your loved one’s efforts goes a long way in nurturing the relationship. These gestures can make all the difference in developing a secure connection with your partner.

Entrepreneurs (ESTP) in romantic relationships

Entrepreneurs (ESTPs) tend to be enthusiastic and spontaneous in romantic relationships. They are driven by action and seek partners matching their energy and enthusiasm.

Their outgoing nature makes them excellent communicators, allowing for open and honest conversations with their loved ones. However, they can also be impulsive and have difficulty navigating emotions or expressing feelings.

Thriving in adventure

For an Entrepreneur, adventure is at the heart of any exhilarating romantic relationship. You thrive on exploring new experiences and embracing spontaneity with your partner. Engage in activities that provide excitement and novelty, making cherished memories together.

Your energy and enthusiasm infuse passion into your partnership, creating a dynamic and thrilling connection. Embrace your adventurous spirit and encourage your partner to join you on exciting journeys, fostering a deeper bond through shared experiences.

Entertainers (ESFP) in romantic relationships

Entertainers (ESFPs) are often seen as vibrant and light-hearted partners. They seek relationships that provide excitement and connection, looking for partners who can share their enthusiasm for life.

They tend to prioritize having fun in relationships and valuing laughter and joy with their loved ones. At the same time, they need partners who can understand and appreciate their emotional needs.

Looking for a thrilling partner? Explore the reasons why dating an ESFP can add excitement and joy to your love life.

Infusing fun and excitement

For an Entertainer, fun, and excitement are at the core of any vibrant romantic relationship. You thrive on creating enjoyable experiences and making your partner laugh. Your joyful and optimistic nature brings a sense of adventure and positivity to your partnership.

Embrace your love for fun and encourage your partner to join you in exciting escapades. Engage in activities that bring joy to both of you, fostering a strong emotional bond through shared happiness.

Use humor to lighten up difficult conversations, and remember also to prioritize your partner’s needs. Showing them appreciation and understanding goes a long way in creating a secure connection. 17

With these tips in mind, remember that explorers are best suited for partners who can provide emotional support and respect their need for freedom. A secure connection can be formed when both parties prioritize trust and understanding.

By having an open dialogue about your feelings, exploring possibilities together, and creating cherished memories with your partner, you will be well on your way to forming a meaningful connection rooted in trust and mutual understanding.


FAQs about the 4 styles of communication in relationships

FAQs about the 4 styles of communication in relationships

1. What personality types work well in relationships?

In relationships, certain personality types tend to complement each other and form strong connections. While compatibility varies from couple to couple, research suggests that some personality types may naturally work well together.

  1. Complementary opposites: Opposites often attract, which is valid for personality types. For instance, an extroverted personality type, such as an ESFP or ENFJ, may thrive in a relationship with an introverted personality type, like an ISTJ or INFP.
  2. Shared values and interests: Couples with similar values and interests often have a stronger emotional connection. For example, two intuitive personality types, such as ENFPs or INFJs, may bond over their mutual love for exploring ideas and emotions.
  3. Emotional intelligence: Partners with high emotional intelligence tend to navigate conflicts and understand each other’s feelings more effectively. Personality types with strong emotional intelligence, like ENFJs or ISFJs, may foster a supportive and empathetic atmosphere in the relationship.
  4. Flexibility and adaptability: Couples with personality types that value flexibility and adaptability are more likely to handle the challenges of a relationship effectively. For instance, personality types like ENTP or ISFP can bring a sense of spontaneity and adaptability to the relationship, enabling them to navigate changes and uncertainties effortlessly.

While personality types can provide valuable insights, successful relationships require mutual effort, communication, and understanding between partners. The key is to respect and celebrate each other’s differences while fostering a loving and supportive connection.

2. Which 16 personality is the rarest?

The rarest of the 16 personality types in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is the INFJ (Introverted, Intuitive, Feeling, Judging) personality type. INFJs comprise approximately 1-2% of the population, making them the least common among the 16 personality types.

As INFJs possess a unique combination of traits, they often feel like they don’t quite fit into the mainstream and may struggle to find others who truly understand them. However, their rarity also contributes to their strengths, such as their deep empathy, intuition, and ability to connect profoundly with others.

Their introspective and compassionate nature can also lead to a strong desire to impact the world positively. Despite their rarity, INFJs can find like-minded individuals and form meaningful connections with people who appreciate their unique qualities and perspectives.

3. What does 16 personalities mean?

The term “16 personalities” refers to the 16 personality types identified in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment. The MBTI is a widely-used personality assessment tool developed by Isabel Briggs Myers and Katharine Cook Briggs, based on the theories of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung.

It was designed to help individuals gain insights into their personality preferences and better understand themselves and others. A combination of four dichotomies represents each of the 16 personality types:

  1. Extraversion (E) vs. Introversion (I): Describes how individuals prefer to focus their energy – either outwardly on the external world (extraversion) or inwardly on their inner thoughts and feelings (introversion).
  2. Sensing (S) vs. Intuition (N): Refers to how individuals gather information – either through concrete facts and details (sensing) or through patterns and possibilities (intuition).
  3. Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F): Describes how individuals make decisions – either based on logical analysis and objective considerations (thinking) or personal values and emotional factors (feeling).
  4. Judging (J) vs. Perceiving (P): Refers to how individuals prefer to deal with the external world – either through structured and planned approaches (judging) or through flexibility and openness (perceiving).

The MBTI assessment helps individuals identify their dominant preferences within each dichotomy, providing a framework for understanding how they perceive the world, process information, make decisions, and interact with others.

4. What is 16 personalities based on?

The 16 personalities are based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a widely used personality assessment tool developed by Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother, Katharine Cook Briggs. The MBTI is founded on the theories of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung, particularly his work on psychological types. 3

Jung proposed that individuals have innate preferences in perceiving and interacting with the world, leading to different psychological types. He identified four psychological functions:

  1. Extraverted Thinking (Te): Focused on external facts, logic, and organization.
  2. Introverted Thinking (Ti): Focused on internal analysis, logic, and understanding.
  3. Extraverted Feeling (Fe): Attuned to external emotions and social dynamics.
  4. Introverted Feeling (Fi): Focused on internal values, emotions, and authenticity.

Jung also identified two attitudes or orientations:

  1. Extraversion (E): Individuals who prefer to focus their energy on the external world and gain energy from social interactions.
  2. Introversion (I): Individuals who prefer to focus their energy inwardly, gaining energy from solitary reflection.

Building upon Jung’s theories, Isabel Briggs Myers and Katharine Cook Briggs expanded the concept to include a total of eight psychological functions organized into four dichotomies:

  1. Extraversion (E) vs. Introversion (I)
  2. Sensing (S) vs. Intuition (N)
  3. Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F)
  4. Judging (J) vs. Perceiving (P)

These dichotomies form the basis for the 16 different personality types in the MBTI. Each individual’s personality type combines one preference from each dichotomy.

Knowing your personality type and that of your partner can help you create a better relationship. Discover other communication in a relationships tips to help you maintain a strong connection with those you love.


  1. Newman, D. L., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1997). Antecedents of adult interpersonal functioning: effects of individual differences in age 3 temperament. Developmental psychology, 33(2), 206. ↩︎

  2. Asendorpf, J. B., Denissen, J. J., & Van Aken, M. A. (2008). Inhibited and aggressive preschool children at 23 years of age: personality and social transitions into adulthood. Developmental psychology, 44(4), 997. ↩︎

  3. Carlson J. G. (1985). Recent assessments of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Journal of personality assessment, 49(4), 356–365. doi.org ↩︎ ↩︎

  4. Woods, R. A., & Hill, P. B. (2022). Myers Brigg. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. ↩︎

  5. Brown, C. L., West, T. V., Sanchez, A. H., & Mendes, W. B. (2021). Emotional Empathy in the Social Regulation of Distress: A Dyadic Approach. Personality & social psychology bulletin, 47(6), 1004–1019. ↩︎

  6. Reese-Weber, M., & Bartle-Haring, S. (1998). Conflict resolution styles in family subsystems and adolescent romantic relationships. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 27(6), 735-752. ↩︎

  7. Reis, H. T., & Shaver, P. (1988). Intimacy as an interpersonal process. In S. Duck, D. F. Hay, S. E. Hobfoll, W. Ickes, & B. M. Montgomery (Eds.), Handbook of personal relationships: Theory, research and interventions (pp. 367–389). Oxford, UK: Wiley. ↩︎

  8. Reese-Weber, M., & Bartle-Haring, S. (1998). Conflict Resolution Styles in Family Subsystems and Adolescent Romantic Relationships. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 27(6), 735–752. ↩︎

  9. Rusbult, C. E., & Buunk, B. P. (1993). Commitment processes in close relationships: An interdependence analysis. Journal of social and personal relationships, 10(2), 175-204. ↩︎

  10. Martínez, N., Connelly, C. D., Pérez, A., & Calero, P. (2021). Self-care: A concept analysis. International journal of nursing sciences, 8(4), 418–425. ↩︎

  11. Cloud, H., & Townsend, J. (2000). Boundaries in Dating: How Healthy Choices Grow Healthy Relationships (1st ed.). Zondervan. amazon.com ↩︎

  12. Gurman, A. S. (2008). A framework for the comparative study of couple therapy. In Alan S Gurman (Ed.), Clinical handbook of couple therapy (4th ed., pp. 1-30). New York, NY: Guilford Press. ↩︎

  13. Zhou, Y., Wang, K., Chen, S., Zhang, J., & Zhou, M. (2017). An Exploratory Investigation of the Role of Openness in Relationship Quality among Emerging Adult Chinese Couples. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 382. ↩︎

  14. Brown, C. L., West, T. V., Sanchez, A. H., & Mendes, W. B. (2021). Emotional Empathy in the Social Regulation of Distress: A Dyadic Approach. Personality & social psychology bulletin, 47(6), 1004–1019. ↩︎

  15. Stanley, S. M., Rhoades, G. K., & Whitton, S. W. (2010). Commitment: Functions, Formation, and the Securing of Romantic Attachment. Journal of family theory & review, 2(4), 243–257. ↩︎

  16. Grebe, N. M., Kristoffersen, A. A., Grøntvedt, T. V., Emery Thompson, M., Kennair, L. E. O., & Gangestad, S. W. (2017). Oxytocin and vulnerable romantic relationships. Hormones and behavior, 90, 64–74. doi.org ↩︎

  17. Driver, J. L., & Gottman, J. M. (2004). Daily marital interactions and positive affect during marital conflict among newlywed couples. Family Process, 43(3), 301-314. ↩︎

Author picture of Amy Clark
Relationship Expert

Amy Clark

Amy Clark is a freelance writer who writes about relationships, marriage, and family. She has been happily married for over ten years and loves her husband and three kids. Before …

Read full bio

Get the official app 😍

PumPum app icon

PumPum

For iPhone & Android
Browse all articles